This site contains supplementary materials for The ACCompanion: Combining Reactivity, Robustness, and Musical Expressivity in an Automatic Piano Accompanist presented at IJCAI-23.


This paper introduces the ACCompanion, an expressive accompaniment system. Similarly to a musician who accompanies a soloist playing a given musical piece, our system can produce a human-like rendition of the accompaniment part that follows the soloist’s choices in terms of tempo, dynamics, and articulation. The ACCompanion works in the symbolic domain, i.e., it needs a musical instrument capable of producing and playing MIDI data, with explicitly encoded onset, offset, and pitch for each played note. We describe the components that go into such a system, from real-time score following and prediction to expressive performance generation and online adaptation to the expressive choices of the human player. Based on our experience with repeated live demonstrations in front of various audiences, we offer an analysis of the challenges of combining these components into a system that is highly reactive and precise, while still a reliable musical partner, robust to possible performance errors and responsive to expressive variations.

Supplementary Materials